Cultural Equity on Australia’s Borders: Social Capital within sight tho’ politically out of reach.
Bibliography included at end of this page
“With War comes devastation and disconnection; with famine comes death and disease. Innocence of human life is lost and the shattered remnants of once great civilisations disperse across the face of the planet in search of safety, in search of normalcy. This array of human life become psychological captives, trapped in the memories of what once was, only to be criminalised for wanting to be (McCarthy, 2014).”
The Australian people dig deep into their own pockets to assist people in crisis, no matter their culture, and they prove this through action and not lip service. Only weeks before Reza Berati was murdered, Australia’s foreign minister gave the Manus Island detention centre two thumbs up. The Australian people were told that off shore processing would stop deaths at sea, but they were not told that it would spark rumour and rhetoric of War, nor rioting that would lead to deaths and mental anguish for those same people, on land, under Australia’s care. The Australian government is sending the people whom they have saved from drowning, to countries known for their impoverished states, with nowhere to live and governments with not a thought for the sanctity of human life.
In the rush to hide Australia’s problem, shameful acts have been legislated in Australians names, and we are angry. Australia has the capacity and need for these young men and women, their families and their cultures. They bring with them trades and heritage, historical things that Australia has always assimilated into their own way of being. Very soon these endowments will be lost, and as we continue to turn our future away, as we alienate our
global society whilst ours ages and dies, Australia will once again become a mere colony, not worth visiting. Australians do not want this. We care, but we were not ready for the carnage of a government who does not. My hope is for a future for my children and for theirs.
Abbott, T., Spring, 2000. Renewing the Social Fabric: Mutual Obligation and Work for the Dole, NSW, Australia: Policy Magazine – Comment.
Adrienne K Deans, C. J. B. J. F. M. D. S. D. J. P. a. J. S. D., 2013. Use of Royal Darwin Hospital emergency department by immigration detainees in 2011. Medical Journal of Australia, 199(11), pp. 776-778.
APA, 2009. Back Ground Paper: Ageing Australian Workforce, Australia : Australian Physiotherapy Association.
Asia, B. N., May, 2014. Australia PM drops Indonesia trip amid asylum boat reports. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-27266428 [Accessed 6th May 2014].
AU, G., 2014. G4S AU: Guarding & Security Services. [Online] Available at: http://www.au.g4s.com/what-we-do/secure.aspx [Accessed 6th May 2014].
Austin, P., 2010. Sydney Morning Herald: Baillieu tells of sadness after Fraser quits Liberal
Party. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/national/baillieu-tells-of-sadness-after-fraser-quits-
liberal-party-20100526-wbes.html [Accessed 2nd May 2014].
Australian Bureau of Statistics, A., May, 2012. Australia’s development assistance program.
[Online] Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/1301.0~2012~Main%20Features~Australia’s%20overseas%20aid%20program~217 [Accessed 20th May 2014].
Australian Government, A. C. a. B. P. S., April, 2014. Operation Sovereign Borders. [Online] Available at: http://www.customs.gov.au/site/operation-sovereign-borders.asp [Accessed 6th May 2014].
Australian navy ‘towed back asylum seekers’. Februray, 2014. [Film] Directed by Al Jazeera. Asia-Pacific: Al Jazeera.
Australia, N. A. o., 2009. Australia’s Primie Ministers: Malcolm Fraser. [Online] Available at: http://primeministers.naa.gov.au/primeministers/fraser/ [Accessed 2nd May 2014].
Australian, T., 2009. Jump in fertility rates shows Peter Costello’s baby bonus has delivered 12,000 extra children. [Online] Available at: http://www.news.com.au/national/baby-bonus-spurs-on-12000-extra-births/story-e6frfkp9-1111118885243 [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
Australia, O., 2011. Australia’s aid effort. [Online] Available at: https://www.oxfam.org.au/explore/millennium-development-goals/australias-aid-effort/ [Accessed 8th May 2014].
Bachelard, M., September, 2013. SMH: Tony Abbott’s asylum seeker policies ‘offensive’, says
senior Indonesian politician. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/tony-abbotts-asylum-seeker-policies-offensive-says-senior-indonesian-politician-20130919-2u082.html [Accessed 8th May 2014].
Bailey, A. R. a. J., May, 2014. Abbottisms. [Online] Available at: http://abbottisms.com [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Baker, M., May, 2013. Baby bonus end leading to tears. [Online] Available at: http://www.examiner.com.au/story/1510898/baby-bonus-end-leading-to-tears/ [Accessed 19th May 2014].
Barker, C., 2008. Sites of Cultural Studies: Cultural Politics and Cultural Policy. In: Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publishers, p. 456.
Barker, C., 2008. Sites of Cultural Studies: Youth, Style and Resistance: Distinctions of Taste. In: Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications, p. 430.
Birch, T., 2007. In: S. Muecke, ed. The Last Refuge of the Un-Australian. United Kingdom: John Libbey Publishing, pp. 17-22.
Bourke, L., May, 2014. ABC News: Labor demands explanation over Tony Abbott’s cancelled Bali trip to meet Indonesian president. [Online]
Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-03/labor-demands-abbott-explain-reasons-behind-cancelled-trip/5428278 [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Britannica, T. E. o. E., 2013. Manus Island. In: T. E. o. E. Britannica, ed. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Global: Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. Manus Island.
Brown, H., May, 2014. ABC News: Indonesia navy issues statement on asylum seeker boat
turn-back. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-06/an-indonesia-navy-issues-statement-
on-asylum-seeker-boat-turn-b/5432284 [Accessed 6th May 2014].
Brown, H., May, 2014. ABC News: Tony Abbott cancels Bali meeting with Indonesia’s Susilo
Bambang Yudhoyono over ‘on-water operation’. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-02/abbott-cancels-bali-trip-after-on-water-incident/5427384 [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Chandler McCleod, U. P., 2013. Coming of Age: The impacts of an aging worforce on Australian business, Australia, Internationally: Chandler McCleod. Citizenship, D. o. I. a., July, 2011. Report of the 2010 Review of the Migration Amendment (Employer Sanctions) Act 2007, Canberra: Stephen Howells.
Com, P., 2012. International Aid ― A Solution: 2012 International Aid Donated (Official Development Assistance), s.l.: Poverty. Com & Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Conference, A., 2000. Area Symposium: Neo-liberalism, Welfare and Education: The New Zealand Experiment: Critique and Critical Transformations, New Orleans: New Zealand Association for Research in Education.
Elliott, R., May, 2012. World Bank: Populate or perish, Sherman Oaks, CA: New Geography: Joel Kotkin and Praxis Strategy Group.
Ferguson, L. C. a. S., 2014. Australian Broadcasting Corporation: Witness reveals story behind Manus Island violence [Interview] (24th February 2014).
Foucault, M., 1984. The Foucault reader. P. Rabinow ed. New York: Pantheon Books.
Gleeson, A., April, 2014. Pension age pressures could mean working until 70: poll, Hunter, Centrasl Coast: Newcastle Herald.
Goldstein, P. J. S., n.d. War and Economic History. In: J. Mokyr, ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 2003.
Graffiti, K. a. C. o. S. C., 2011. Corporeal Production, Sydney: Macquarie University.
Greene, A., 2014. ABC News: Immigration detention centre closures set to save Government $88.8m. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-14/morrison-to-announce-closure-of-four-mainland-detention-centres/5199160 [Accessed 30th April 2014].
Greene, A., 2014. ABC News: Immigration detention centre closures set to save Government $88.8m. [Online]
Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-14/morrison-to-announce-closure-of-four-mainland-detention-centres/5199160 [Accessed 29th April 2014].
Hartcher, P., May, 2014. Why Tony Abbott’s tactics have caused a big chill with Indonesia.
[Online] Available at: http://www.stockandland.com.au/news/metro/national/general/why-tony-
abbotts-tactics-have-caused-a-big-chill-with-indonesia/2697512.aspx [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Hawley, S., May, 2014. The Australian Broadcasting Network: Cambodia close to signing off on refugee deal with Australia, says government. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-19/cambodia-edges-closer-to-refugee-settlement-deal-with-australia/5460918 [Accessed 19th May 2014].
Health, Q., 2012. Dr Paul Alexander AO: Chair, Metro North Hospital and Health Board. [Online]
Available at: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/services/metronorth/board/paul-alexander.asp [Accessed 1st May 2014].
Henderson, A., 2013. ABC News: Abbott says criticism over axing of Immigration Health Advisory Group is ‘complete beat-up’. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-16/coalition-disbands-immigration-health-
advisory-group/5158084 [Accessed 30th April 2014].
Hooper, C., March, 2006. The Tall Man: Inside Palm Island’s Heart of Darkness. [Online] Available at: http://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2006/march/1310518470/chloe-hooper/tall-man [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
House of Representatives, P. H., 2013. Scott Morrison. [Online] Available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Senators_and_Members/Parliamentarian?MPID=E3L [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
India, T. T. o., 2014. Indian student dies in Australian immigration detention centre. [Online] Available at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/nri/other-news/Indian-student-dies-in-Australian-immigration-detention-centre/articleshow/30403949.cms [Accessed 29th April 2014].
Investopedia, 2014. Neoliberalism: Macroeconomics – Definition of ‘Neoliberalism’. [Online] Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/neoliberalism.asp [Accessed 2nd May 2014].
Jakubowicz, A., July, 2009. Cultural Diversity, Cosmopolitan Citizenship & Education: Issues, Options and Implications for Australia: A discussion paper for the Australian Education Union , Sydney, Australia: Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre University of Technology Sydney.
Jakubowicz, A., July, 2009. Cultural Diversity, Cosmopolitan Citizenship & Education: Issues, Options and Implications for Australia: A discussion paper for the Australian
Education Union: Commonwealth perspectives, Sydney, Australia: Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre University of Technology Sydney.
Jakubowicz, A., July, 2009. Cultural Diversity, Cosmopolitan Citizenship & Education: Issues, Options and Implications for Australia: A discussion paper for the Australian Education Union: Education and social cohesion, Sydney, Australia: Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Research Centre University of Technology Sydney.
Janet Phillips, January, 2011. Asylum seekers and refugees: what are the facts? , NSW: Parliament of Australia Social Policy Section.
Jessica Marszalek, J. R. N. W., May, 2014. News Corp Australia: Treasurer Joe Hockey announces retirement age to rise to 70 from 2035. [Online] Available at: http://www.news.com.au/finance/economy/treasurer-joe-hockey-announces-retirement-age-to-rise-to-70-from-2035/story-fn84fgcm-1226903116847 [Accessed 6th May 2014].
Jock CoIlins, G. N. S. P. a. P. T., 2010. Crime and ethnicity in Australia. In: A. C. f. t. Arts, ed. Kebabs, Kids, Cops and Crime: Youth, Ethnicity and Crime. Australia: Pluto Press, p. 87.
Keating, S., 2014. ABC News: Morrison’s cynical Catch-22 ploy on asylum seekers. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-02/keating-morrisons-cynical-catch-22-ploy-on-asylum-seekers/5181902 [Accessed 1st May 2014].
Koleth, E., October, 2010. Multicultural Australia: United in Diversity—Updating the 1999 New Agenda for Multicultural Australia: Strategic directions for 2003-2006, NSW: Parliament of Australia: Research Paper no. 6 2010–11.
Koleth, E., October, 2010. Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australia and overseas, NSW: Parliament of Australia: Social Policy Section: Research Paper no. 6 2010–11.
Law, C., Amendment, 2013. Migration Regulations 1994: 2.08H Certain persons taken to have applied for Subclass 785 (Temporary Protection) visas, Commonwealth of Australia: Immigration and Border Protection. Limited, J., October, 2013. Australian Giving Trends: Recovery confirmed, evolution gains pace, Australia: JBWere Charitable Endowment Fund: National Australia Bank Limited (‘NAB’).
Maley, J., August, 2013. SMH: Tony Abbott’s paid parental leave scheme to begin July 2015.
[Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/federal-election-2013/tony-abbotts-paid-parental-leave-scheme-to-begin-july-2015-20130818-2s4jc.html [Accessed 7th May 2013].
Mark Scott, M. D. a. K. T. D. N., February, 2014. ABC News Statement of Reporting the News. [Online] Available at: http://about.abc.net.au/press-releases/abc-statement/ [Accessed 7th May 2014].
McCarthy, K., 2013. Abbott Sparks Class War Through Segregation within The Coalitions; Australian Womens Breeding Program. [Online] Available at: https://skpmas.comabbott-sparks-class-war-through-segregation-
within-the-coalitions-australian-womens-breeding-program [Accessed 30th April 2014].
McCarthy, K., 2014. To the Innocence of Life. Tasmania: s.n. Migration, I. O. f., 2011. Return Assistance to Failed Asylum Seekers and Irregular Migrants in Australia: Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR): Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration Program, Australia: International Organisation for Migration.
Morgan, R., December 2008 — December 2012. Base: Australians 14+: Roy Morgan Single Source, Australia: Roy Morgan.
Murdoch, L., May, 2014. Sydney Morning Herald: Cambodians don’t want Australia’s asylum seekers. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/cambodians-dont-want-australias-
asylum-seekers-20140502-zr3cd.html [Accessed 19th May 2014].
Murrray, G., April, 2014. Abbott’s war on the rest of us – And why there’s no need. [Online] Available at: http://www.glennmurray.com.au/abbotts-war-on-the-rest-of-us-and-why-theres-no-need/ [Accessed 12th May 2014].
Natalie Jackson, A. C., 2009. Procreate and Cherish: A Note on Australia’s Abrupt Shift to Pro-Natalism. New Zealand Population Review, 35(Population Association of New Zealand ), pp. 129-148.
Nations, P. M. t. t. U., 2000. Brief Historical Overview, New York: Republic of Nauru.
News.com.au, May, 2014. Federal Budget 2014: More than $7.5 billion cut from foreign aid.
[Online] Available at: http://www.news.com.au/finance/economy/federal-budget-2014-more-than-75-billion-cut-from-foreign-aid/story-fn84fgcm-1226916448075 [Accessed 20th May 2014].
News, A., January, 2014. Federal Government confirms $100m cut to foreign aid budget, focus on recipients in Asia-Pacific region. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-18/federal-government-announces-details-
of-foreign-aid-cuts/5206594 [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
Newsroom, D. O., 2013. Immigration Health Advisory Group (IHAG) replaces DeHAG. [Online] Available at: http://www.newsroom.immi.gov.au/releases/immigration-health-advisory-group-ihag-replaces-dehag [Accessed 1st May 2014].
Nusa Dua, B. I., May, 2014. Open Government Partnership: Asia Pacific Regional Meeting. [Online] Available at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/get-involved/asia-pacific-regional-meeting [Accessed 6th May 2014].
O’Brien, N., May, 2014. SMH: Battered Manus Island detainees spirited away. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/national/battered-manus-island-detainees-spirited-away-20140510-zr8a4.html [Accessed 19th May 2014].
Oliver Laughland, P. F. a. A. W., February, 2014. The Guardian News: Immigration Department data lapse reveals asylum seekers’ personal details. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/19/asylum-seekers-identities-revealed-in-immigration-department-data-lapse [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
Parliament House, C., 2014. Christine Milne. [Online] Available at: http://christine-milne.greensmps.org.au [Accessed 19th May 2014]. Parnell, S., 2010. The Australian: Treasury push for big migration boost to offset population ageing. [Online]
Available at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/treasury-push-for-big-migration-boost-to-offset-population-ageing/story-e6frg6nf-1225874726903 [Accessed 30th April 2014].
Peter, P. B. a. Z., February, 2014. The Cambodia Daily: Cambodia Asked to Take in Australian Asylum Seekers. [Online] Available at: http://www.cambodiadaily.com/archives/cambodia-asked-to-take-in-australian-
asylum-seekers-52985/ [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
Phillips, K., March 2014. ABC News: How Nauru threw it all away. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/rearvision/how-nauru-threw-it-all-away/5312714 [Accessed 3rd May 2014].
Poverty.com, 2012. International Aid. [Online] Available at: http://www.poverty.com/internationalaid.html
[Accessed 16th May 2014].
Protection, A. D. o. I. a. B., 2014. Australian Border Force, NSW: Australian Government.
Protection, D. o. I. a. B., September, 2013. The Hon. Scott Morrison MP: Minister for Immigration and Border Protection. [Online] Available at: http://www.minister.immi.gov.au [Accessed 1st May 2014].
Representatives, H. o., Bills Digest no. 88 2012–13. Family Assistance and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2013: Purpose of the Bill, Commonwealth of Australia: House of Representatives: Parliamentary Business: Bills and Legislation.
Rigney, S., January, 2014. Asylum-seeker policy could amount to crime: There is a legal argument that the government has a case to answer at the International Criminal Tribunal over its treatment of asylum seekers.. [Online] Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/comment/asylumseeker-policy-could-amount-to-
crime-20140123-31bij.html [Accessed 8th May 2014].
Ritter, D., May, 2014. ABC: Hockey exposes us as fair weather friends. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-05-15/ritter-hockey-exposes-us-as-fair-weather-friends/5454624 [Accessed 20th May 2014].
Roberts, G., February, 2014. Government rejects reports Navy fired warning shots at asylum seeker boat; Indonesia’s Marty Natalegawa says lifeboat plan a ‘slippery slope’. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-16/morrison-rejects-reports-navy-fired-warning-shots-at-asylum-boat/5202340 [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Roberts, G., February, 2014. Indonesia’s government and military close ranks against Australia’s boat turn-backs. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-01-10/indonesia27s-military-chief-says-he-opposes-asylum-boat-turn-b/5193198 [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Ryan, P., April, 2014. Government beating up budget crisis to sell desired cuts, says
economist Raja Junankar. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-04-30/government-beating-up-budget-crisis-to-implement-desired-cuts-s/5421136 [Accessed 12th May 2014].
Service, S. B., May, 2014. SBS: Six more detention centres to close. [Online] Available at: http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2014/05/08/six-more-detention-centres-close [Accessed 20th May 2014].
Spinks, J. P. a. H., 2012. Social Policy Section: Boat arrivals in Australia since 1976, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Spinks, J. P. a. H., 2013. Social Policy Section: Immigration detention in Australia 2013, Canberra: Parliament of Australia . staff, K. B. a., May, 2013. ABC News: Parliament excises mainland from migration zone. [Online]
Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-05-16/parliament-excises-mainland-from-
migration-zone/4693940 [Accessed 15th May 2014].
Statistics, A. B. o., October, 2012. 2071.0 – Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia 2014.
Swan, J., January, 2014. SMH: Tony Abbott compares secrecy over asylum seekers to war time. [Online]
Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/tony-abbott-compares-secrecy-over-asylum-seekers-to-war-time-20140110-30lyt.html [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Taylor, L. M. K. F. C., 2013. Australian immigration policies: Election 2013, Australia: The
Guardian. Thomson, P., December, 2013. SMH: Zimbabwe’s Ambassador Jacqueline Zwambila asks Australia for asylum. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/national/zimbabwes-ambassador-jacqueline-zwambila-asks-australia-for-asylum-20131227-2zzoe.html#ixzz31TLRSVzq [Accessed 12th May 2014].
Thomson, P., December, 2013. The Canberra Times: Zimbabwe ambassador to Australia Jacqueline Zwambila defects. [Online] Available at: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/zimbabwe-ambassador-to-australia-
jacqueline-zwambila-defects-20131227-2zzvt.html [Accessed 29th April 2014].
Ting, I., March, 2014. SMH: Freedom and control are why the rich really are charitable. [Online] Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/national/freedom-and-control-are-why-the-rich-really-are-charitable-20140307-34cb5.html
[Accessed 16th May 2014].
uknowispeaksense, 2013. What is going on with the Abbott government?. [Online] Available at: http://uknowispeaksense.wordpress.com/tag/abbottism/ [Accessed 30th April 2014].
Walque, D. d., November, 2004 . The Long-Term Legacy of the Khmer Rouge Period in Cambodia: Cambodians fleeing war and starvation 1970-80, East Asia Pacific: Development Research Group World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3446.
Weber, L., 2006. Border, mobility and technologies of control. In: I. S. P. &. L. Weber, ed. The shifting frontiers of migration control. New York: Springer.
Weber, L., 2007. Policing the virtual border: Punitive preemption in Australian offshore migration. Social Justice, 34(2), pp. 1-23.
Welch, M., 2014. Economic man and diffused sovereignty: a critique of Australia’s asylum regime: Conclusion. Crime Law Soc Change, Volume 61, p. 102.
Whitwell, G., 1998. University of Melbourne: What is Economic Rationalism?. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/money/currency/features/feat11.htm [Accessed 7th May 2014].
Williams, A., May, 2014. Detention centre closures must be accompanied by community alternatives, NSW: Refugee Council of Australia.
Worringham, T. P. a. C., 2005. Managing the Ageing Workforce: Issues and Opportunities for the Queensland Coal Mining , Brisbane, Australia. : School of Human Movement Studies & Queensland University of Technology.
Yoon, R. D. R., 2014. Asian Correspondent: Australia: Death of refugee on Manus Island inevitable. [Online] Available at: http://asiancorrespondent.com/119914/australia-death-of-refugee-on-manus-island-inevitable/ [Accessed 29th April 2014].
Zealand, H. A. /. N., 2012. Hudson 20:20 Series – The Ageing Population: Implications for the Australian Workforce, Australia & New Zealand: Hudson: Global Resourses & Human Capital Solutions.